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Hank remarried so last time we talked about Raoul the penguin and how he was happier than another penguin Cesare but I want to talk today about how to form the comparative and the superlative you know how to come how to compare how to say something is more than or most in an unfamiliar situation if you're looking at a word for the first time or you're encountering you're trying to figure out how to make a word comparative or superlative you know to be like oh well I've got this word I've got this word cute like that's a cute little baby penguin but how do I say that it is more cute than another animal well there's a there's a shorthand for that sometimes you can say more cute certainly but you can also say it's cuter and you could furthermore say q-test and it turns out that there are a series of sound rules in English that kind of govern the way that we choose to make these words go so I'll show you I'll show you each of them in turn so okay so we've gone so I've got this little table that I'm building here and we've got a description how it looks in the comparative and how it looks in the superlative so if you take a word like cute then work so if you take a word like cute words like cute have what we call one syllable one word sound cute and so a word like cute that is one syllable and ends in an e so one syllable ends in E all we have to do to make it comparative is add an R so add R and that gives us cuter for the comparative all you have to do is add st and you get the word cute well what if you've got a word like big if you tried to add just R to that it would just look like bigger or st to that it would look like biggest and that that's not really how we would form these words in standard English that doesn't go because they're kind of inconvenient to say we like to have vowels in between some of those those consonant sounds between the buh and the gut and lists so what you do if it's a one syllable and it's only got one vowel in the middle like I like that one vowel and it ends in a consonant like a like a G then what you do is double the consonant and add er so this word big ends in a G so what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna for the comparative I'm gonna say big and then I'm gonna double that G I'm gonna use it twice bigger like that and then add the ER likewise for the superlative same thing so you double the consonant at the end of the word and then you add est so it becomes bi G and then I double this consonant sound so bi GG est biggest and for words like short and sweet oh I should clarify for for this one for big this should end in one consonant so bi G there's only one consonant there because four words like short and sweet that have one syllable but either have two vowels like sweet does sounds E and E or two consonants at the end what you do is you just add ER so shorter or sweeter and for the superlative form ad est so shortest or sweetest and now we're getting into the weird stuff so if you take a word like SHINee which is two syllables and it ends in Y and what you have to do is you change Y to an i and you add er so shiny becomes shinier see how this Y becomes an I here same thing for superlative the y becomes an i and then you add est so shiniest now if you've got a word like magnificent magnificent this is a four syllable word it means like super huge super great super wonderful you've got a word like that you take a word like that it's a little bit too big to be adding more parts to the way that standard American English works so you wouldn't say magnificent er or magnificent test it just sounds unwieldy because the words already pretty long so if you've got a two or more syllable word that doesn't end that doesn't end in in Y then you just have to add the word more to the beginning so more magnificent and most magnificent so let's say that you're encountering a word you've never seen before and in a in a sentence you have to compare the let's say the word is Bowl our fee I don't know what it means it probably something gross so if we want to compare two really gross meals you know like a steaming pile of I don't know dog food covered in flies or a you know a plate of ancient cheese it's like 3,000 years old you gotta eat it it grows which one is grosser but you have to use you have to describe them using the word barfi this word we've never seen before well what do we know about blur fee well it's got two syllables blur fee so that automatically crosses out any of this stuff it does end in a why blur fee so we know that it's probably going to behave like shiny like the word shiny because I've got two syllables and it ends in Y so I'm gonna say that the dog food is less blur fee and the cheese is Bowl our fear in fact this cheese is the blur feeis food on the planet now don't get me wrong I love a good stinky cheese but this one in particular this 3000 year old cheese super blur fee in fact I'm just gonna go so far as to say it is the blur feast you can blarf anything Dave it out