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hello grammarians hello Rosie - so in this video we're going to talk about complex sentences we've talked in another video about simple and compound sentences so that is like one independent clause or two independent clauses and with a complex sentence we're going to introduce something called a dependent clause so a sentence needs at least one independent clause to function as a sentence but with complex we're gonna add this dependent clause so rosy what's an example of a complex sentence when we buy his birthday cake we have to make sure it's lemon so the sentence when we buy his birthday cake we have to make sure it's lemon is made up of two clauses and I've written them in different colors here so the second one the pink one can stand on its own as a sentence we could just say we have to make sure it's lemon it works it functions as as an independent clauses its own sentence we have some information that might be missing from this sentence because we don't necessarily know what it's is but we do have all the components of an independent clause here we've got we've got a subject we and a verb half-half - and well we have multiple verbs yeah got a lot of have to make sure so the the sentence is relying on some information that's not provided but it does still stand as its own sentence right like we could have a sentence before it that's like we're gonna go buy a birthday cake we have to make sure it's lemon right those can be two separate sentences in this case we have this other clause this what's called a dependent clause we can't just say when we buy his birthday cake as a sentence that doesn't really stand on its own it doesn't convey the information that a sentence needs to needs to convey so we could have an independent clause or a sentence that's just we buy his birthday cake it's kind of a weird construction I don't know that I would say that you could maybe say we are buying his birthday cake right but we buy his birthday cake still works as a sentence it has a subject we and a verb by and it expresses a complete idea it's it's an action that's happening and it tells you who is doing it but we add this thing called a subordinating conjunction that's this word when here and that makes this into a dependent clause it can't be a sentence by itself so it depends on the later clause we have to make sure it's lemon to be part of a sentence okay so rosy what's another example of a complex sentence although our tent was zipped up the sound of hyenas in the distance still frightened us so again this sentence starts with a dependent clause although our tent was zipped up this would be independent if it said our tent was IFFT up but again we have this subordinating conjunction although at the beginning and there's kind of a whole bunch of different subordinating conjunctions they're sort of just something that you need to remember but essentially their job is to connect clauses and sentences but also make things into dependent clauses one other thing we were showing you two sentences where the dependent clause is coming before the independent clause but that's not necessarily always going to be the case like for example we could have said the sound of hyenas in the distance frightened us even though our tent was zipped up right that would still be a complex sentence it would be an independent clause and a dependent clause but just in a different order they don't have to be in this order that we've that we've done twice okay so Rosie what if I do something like this like when we buy his birthday cake we have to make sure it's lemon because it's his favorite I think because it's his favorite is a dependent clause right that's right and this sentence still completely works as a complex sentence because you still just have this one independent clause we have to make sure it's lemon but the thing about complex sentences is you can add more than one dependent clause if you want and it's still considered a complex sentence okay so it has to have just one independent clause right but I guess as many dependent clauses as you want yeah you can go crazy okay cool so I think that's that's complex sentences it's an independent clause that can be a sentence by itself and one or more dependent clauses which can't be sentences by themselves all put together in one big sentence does that sound right Rosie sounds good to me page cool you can learn anything page out Rosie out